What is Language?
Language is not the only means of communication, thoughts and ideas but it builds friendships, economic relationships and cultural ties. Every nation has there own languages . There are various types of languages mainly in whole world . English is one of international language which used in each and every country . If I talk about India then Hindi is national language of India . There are total of 29 states in which every states has their own language. Furthermore , each language represent the culture and religious of a state . If I talk about a particular country then each nation has there own dialect . Mainly every nation has their different accent and writing pattern according to kingdom
Functions of Language:-
- Informative function: First function of language is to communicate any information. It is very important function. It helps in deliver messages, describe things, and give our listener new information. In this function, Message is a word that describes this function best. Truth and values are related to Informational function.
2.Expressive function :- This function is used when we express our feelings, thoughts and ideas to another person. There are some words that are used to express attitudes and feelings, which don’t deliver any particular information. Here the examples of such words are swear words, as well as various exclamations. Under this function we not only delivers the message but also express our feelings and impressions . With the help of this expressive function of language, we can understand the personality of a speaker, and his or her emotions.
- Directive function:- This function is used to induce certain actions or reactions. Example of such kind of function is command, request. This function become similar to the expressive function when it gives importance to the affective and situational meanings of a phrase rather than general meaning. It is a function of social control and interpersonal interaction. The most important function of this function is that the reaction of a listener is even more important than a thought expressed by a speaker, since this reaction determines whether such a phrase achieved the target or not.
- Aesthetic function:- This function doesn’t have any particular purpose. In this function, words and sentences are considered as linguistic artifacts. Aesthetic function serves neither as a request nor as a message. This function helps us use words as a tool of a poetic art, and as certain signs. The beauty of selected words and phrases are more important than usefulness of this type of information. We use different adjectives, such as “gorgeous”, “elegant”, “stunning”, and so on for the sake of such a function.
- Phatic function:- The main purpose of this function is to maintain social relationships, and to begin, or continue the conversation. One example of this function is from British culture small talk about the weather. Such a kind of talk doesn’t provide us with any necessary information. It even doesn’t express our feelings, but it helps us to interact with people. Whenever we meet somebody on the street, we can talk about the weather, or work, or children, it doesn’t matter. The main reason for such a talk is not our interest, but simply our desire to talk. And absolutely such conversations may also contain some interesting information, but it’s not necessary.
Types of Language
1.Chinese:- Chinese is a “macrolanguage” that encompasses dozens of different forms and dialects that together have just short of 1.2 billion native speakers.
3.English:- English is one of the world’s most widespread languages: mother-tongue speakers are recorded in 101 different countries and territories worldwide, 94 of which class it as an official language.
4.Hindi:- The world’s 260 million native Hindi speakers are mainly found in India and Nepal, while an estimated 120 million more people in India use Hindi as a second language.
- Portuguese :- The population of Portugal is just under 11 million, but the global Lusophone population is boosted enormouslyby Brazil’s 187 million native speakers.
- Bengali:- After Hindi, Bengali is the second most widely spoken language of Indiawith just over 82 million native speakers.
- Russian :- One hundred and thirty-seven million of Russian’s 166 million native speakers live in the Russian Federation, with smaller populations in Ukraine (8.3 million), Belarus (6.6 million), Uzbekistan (4 million) and Kazakhstan (3.8 million).
- Japanese :- Japan’s 128 million people comprise the language’s entire native speaker population, enough to make it the ninth most widely spoken language in the world.
- Lahnda:- Lahnda is the collective name given to a group of related Punjabi languages and dialects spoken predominantly in Pakistan.
- German:- Seventy million of the world’s 78 million native German speakers live in Germany, with the remaining 8 million found in the likes of Austria, Switzerland, Belgium and Luxembourg.
- Javanese:- More than half of its 139 million inhabitants speak the local Javanese language, enough to earn it a spot just outside of the global top 10 here.
- French:- The world’s 75 million native French speakers are divided among 51 countries and territories, including 7.3 million in Canada, 4 million in Belgium, and 6 million in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
- Telugu and Marathi:- Telugu and Marathi are India’s third and fourth most used languages, with just over 74 and just short of 72 million native speakers, respectively.
16.Turkish :- Sixty-six million of the world’s 70 million Turkish speakers are in Turkey.
- Tamil:- Tamil is India’s fifth most spoken language, as well as being one of the official languages of Sri Lanka and Singapore.
- Vietnamese :- The OEDrecords just 14 Vietnamese loanwords in English, the earliest of which is the name of the Vietnamese currency, dông(1824).
- Urdu:- Urdu is the sixth Indian language to make the global top 20, with its worldwide total comprised of 51 million native Indian speakers, a further 10 million in Pakistan, and smaller populations in Nepal and Mauritius.